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石竹斋

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小学英语知识点汇总  

2015-09-20 01:26:51|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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2015年09月17日 - zhoujinping67 - 石竹斋
 
 










一、名词复数规则


1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds


2.以s. x. sh. ch结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches


3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:family-families, strawberry-strawberries


4.以“f或fe”结尾,变f或fe为v, 再加-es,如:knife-knives 5.不规则名词复数: man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen, policewoman-policewomen, mouse-mice child-children foot-feet,.tooth-teeth fish-fish, people-people, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese


写出下列各词的复数


I _________him _________this ___________her ______watch _______child _______photo ________diary ______


day________ foot________ book_______ dress ________tooth_______ sheep ______box_______ strawberry _____


peach______ sandwich ______dish_______bus_______man______ woman_______


二、一般现在时


1.一般现在时表示经常或习惯性的动作,也可表示现在的状态或主语具备的性格和能力。


2.一般现在时中,没有be动词和情态动词,主语为第三人称单数的肯定句,动词要按规则加上s,主语是非第三人称单数的肯定句,动词用原形。


3.在一般现在时中,句中有be动词或情态动词时,否定句在be动词和情态动词后加not,一般疑问句将be动词或情态动词放在句首。 4.在一般现在时中,句中没有be动词或情态动词时,主语为第三人称单数的否定句在动词前加does+not (doesn’t),一般疑问句在句首加does,句子中原有动词用原形;主语为非第三人称单数,否定句用do+not (don’t),一般疑问句在句首加do,句子中动词用原形。


动词+s的变化规则


1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks


2 .以s. x. sh. ch. o结尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes


3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:study-studies


一般现在时基本用法介绍


【No. 1】一般现在时的功能


1.表示事物或人物的特征、状态。如:The sky is blue.天空是蓝色的。


2.表示经常性或习惯性的动作。如:I get up at six every day.我天天六点起床。


3.表示客观现实。如:The earth goes around the sun.地球绕着太阳转。


一般现在时的构成


1. be动词:主语 be(am,is,are) 其它。如:


I am a boy.我是一个男孩。


2.行为动词:主语 行为动词( 其它)。如:


We study English.我们学习英语。


当主语为第三人称单数(he, she,it)时,要在动词后加"-s"或"-es"。如:Mary likes Chinese.玛丽喜欢汉语。


【No. 2】一般现在时的变化


1. be动词的变化。


否定句:主语 be not 其它。


如:He is not a worker.他不是工人。


一般疑问句:Be 主语 其它。


如:-Are you a student?


-Yes. I am. / No, I'm not.


非凡疑问句:疑问词 一般疑问句。如:Where is my bike?


2.行为动词的变化。


否定句:主语 don't( doesn't ) 动词原形( 其它)。如:


I don't like bread.


当主语为第三人称单数时,要用doesn't构成否定句。如:


He doesn't often play.


一般疑问句:Do( Does ) 主语 动词原形 其它。如:


- Do you often play football?


- Yes, I do. / No, I don't.


当主语为第三人称单数时,要用does构成一般疑问句。如:


- Does she go to work by bike?


- Yes, she does. / No, she doesn't.


2.行为动词的变化。


否定句:主语 don't( doesn't ) 动词原形( 其它)。如:


I don't like bread.


当主语为第三人称单数时,要用doesn't构成否定句。如:


He doesn't often play.


一般疑问句:Do( Does ) 主语 动词原形 其它。如:


- Do you often play football?


- Yes, I do. / No, I don't.


当主语为第三人称单数时,要用does构成一般疑问句。如:


- Does she go to work by bike?


- Yes, she does. / No, she doesn't.


动词 s的变化规则


1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks


2.以s. x. sh. ch. o结尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes


3.以“辅音字母 y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:study-studies


用括号内动词的适当形式填空。


1. He often ________(have) dinner at home.


2. Daniel and Tommy _______(be) in Class One.


3. We _______(not watch) TV on Monday.


4. Nick _______(not go) to the zoo on Sunday.


5. ______ they ________(like) the World Cup?


6. What _______they often _______(do) on Saturdays?


7. _______ your parents _______(read) newspapers every day?


8. The girl _______(teach) us English on Sundays.


9. She and I ________(take) a walk together every evening.


10. There ________(be) some water in the bottle.


11. Mike _______(like) cooking.


12. They _______(have) the same hobby.


13. My aunt _______(look) after her baby carefully.


14. You always _______(do) your homework well.


15. I _______(be) ill. I’m staying in bed.


16. She _______(go) to school from Monday to Friday.


17. Liu Tao _______(do) not like PE.


18. The child often _______(watch) TV in the evening.


19. Su Hai and Su Yang _______(have) eight lessons this term.


20. -What day _______(be) it today?


- It’s Saturday


三、现在进行时


1.现在进行时表示现在正在进行或发生的动作,也可表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作。


2.现在进行时的肯定句基本结构为be+动词ing.


3.现在进行时的否定句在be后加not。


4.现在进行时的一般疑问句把be动词调到句首。


    5.现在进行时的非凡疑问的基本结构为:


疑问词不达意 be 主语 动词ing?


但疑问词当主语时其结构为:


疑问词不达意 be 动词ing?


动词加ing的变化规则


1.一般情况下,直接加ing,如:cook-cooking


2.以不发音的e结尾,去e加ing,如:make-making, taste-tasting


3.如果末尾是一个元音字母和一个辅音字母,双写末尾的辅音字母,再加ing,如:run-running, stop-stopping


写出下列动词的现在分词:


play________ run__________ swim _________make__________


go_________ like________ write________ _ski___________


read________ have_________ sing ________ dance_________


put_________ see________ buy _________ love____________


live_______ take_________ come ________ get_________


stop_________ sit ________ begin________ shop___________


二、用所给的动词的正确形式填空:


1.The boy __________________ ( draw)a picture now.


2. Listen .Some girls _______________ ( sing)in the classroom .


3. My mother _________________ ( cook )some nice food now.


4. What _____ you ______ ( do ) now?


5. Look . They _______________( have) an English lesson .


6.They ____________(not ,water) the flowers now.


7.Look! the girls ________________(dance )in the classroom .


8.What is our granddaughter doing? She _________(listen ) to music.


9. It’s 5 o’clock now. We _____________(have)supper now


10.______Helen____________(wash )clothes? Yes ,she is .


四、将来时理论及练习


一、概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或预备做某事。句中一般有以下时间状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year…),soon, the day after tomorrow(后天)等。


二、基本结构:①be going to do;②will do.


三、否定句:在be动词(am, is, are)l后加not或情态动词will后加not成won’t。


例如:I’m going to have a picnic this afternoon.→ I’m not going to have a picnic this afternoon.


四、同义句:be going to = will


1.be going to 表示将要发生的事或打算、计划、决定要做的事情。


2.肯定句:be going to +动词原形,如:Jim is going to play football. 否定句:be not going to +动词原形,如:Jim is not going to play football. 一般疑问句:把be动词调到句首,如:Is Jim going to play football? 特殊疑问句:疑问词+be+主语+going to+动词原形?如:What is Jim going to do? 疑问词当主语时:疑问词+be+going to+动词原形?如:Who is going to play football?


I am going to go swimming tomorrow(明天). = I will go swimming tomorrow.


练习:


填空。


1. 我打算明天和朋友去野炊。


I_____ _______ _________ have a picnic with my friends.


I ________ have a picnic with my friends.


2.我们将要学习英语


We _____ _______ _________ learn English.


We ________ learn English.


五、一般过去时


1.一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态,常和表示过去的时间状语连用。一般过去时也表示过去经常或反复发生的动作感谢。


2.Be动词在一般过去时中的变化:


⑴am 和is在一般过去时中变为was。(was not=wasn’t)


⑵are在一般过去时中变为were。(were not=weren’t)


⑶带有was或were的句子,其否定、疑问的变化和is, am, are一样,即否定句在was或were后加not,一般疑问句把was或were调到句首。


3.句中没有be动词的一般过去时的句子


否定句:didn’t +动词原形,如:Jim didn’t go home yesterday. 一般疑问句:在句首加did,句子中的动词过去式变回原形。如:Did Jim go home yesterday? 特殊疑问句:


⑴疑问词+did+主语+动词原形?如: What did Jim do yesterday? ⑵疑问词当主语时:疑问词+动词过去式?如:Who went to home yesterday?


动词过去式变化规则:


1.一般在动词末尾加-ed,如:pull-pulled, cook-cooked


2.结尾是e加d,如:taste-tasted


3.末尾只有一个元音字母和一个辅音字母的重读闭音节,应双写末尾的辅音字母,再加-ed,如:stop-stopped


4.以“辅音字母+y”结尾的,变y为i,再加-ed,如:study-studied


5.不规则动词过去式: am,is-was, are-were, do-did, see-saw, say-said, give-gave, get-got, go-went, come-came, have-had, eat-ate, take-took, run-ran, sing-sang, put-put, make-made, read-read, write-wrote, draw-drew, drink-drank, fly-flew, ride-rode, speak-spoke, sweep-swept, swim-swam, sit-sat


过去时练习


写出下列动词的过去式


is\am_________ plant________ are ________


drink_________ play_______ go________ make ________


does_________ dance________ worry________ ask _____


taste_________ eat__________ put ______


kick_________ pass_______ do ________


Be动词的过去时练习(1)


Name ____________ No. ______ Date __________


用be动词的适当形式填空


1. I _______ at school just now.


2. He ________ at the camp last week.


3. We ________ students two years ago.


4. They ________ on the farm a moment ago.


5. Yang Ling ________ eleven years old last year.


6. There ________ an apple on the plate yesterday.


 


7. There ________ some milk in the fridge on Sunday.


8. The mobile phone _______ on the sofa yesterday evening.


用be动词的适当形式填空


1. I ______ an English teacher now.


2. She _______ happy yesterday.


3. They _______ glad to see each other last month.


行为动词的过去时练习(2)


Name ____________ No. ______ Date __________


用be动词的适当形式填空


1. I ______ (watch) a cartoon on Saturday.


2. Her father _______ (read) a newspaper last night.


3. We _________ to zoo yesterday, we _____ to the park. (go)


4. ______ you _______ (visit) your relatives last Spring Festival?


5. ______ he _______ (fly) a kite on Sunday? Yes, he ______.


6. Gao Shan _______ (pull) up carrots last National Day holiday.


7. I ____________ (sweep) the floor yesterday, but my mother ______.


8. What ______ she _______ (find) in the garden last morning? She __________ (find) a beautiful butterfly.


 


(二)小升初英语词类:


动词、名词和形容词不太容易区分,如不能一眼看出,可用如下方法:


先用“一(量词)”(如:一个、一张等)和这个词连起来说,如说得通,一般认为是名词;说不通再用“很”去判断,就是把“很”和为个词连起来说,说得通一般就是形容词;都说不通就是动词。(目前我们学过的,以后可能不同)(另外一些很明显的,如人称代词、数词、情态动词等一下就可以知道)


1、动词


这里所说的动词是指各种动词总称,其中包括行为动词(就是我们平时总说的那种动词)、be动词、情态动词。


(1)行为动词


就是我们平时上课时说的动词,表示某一动作或行为。如:sweep、live等。


行为动词我们已学过它们的四种形式:


原形、+s/es、+ed、+ing,具体判断方法如下:


↗有,就加ing


读句子→读该单词→认识该单词→理解意思→看有无be动词


(若是be going to 就用原形)


↘没有,再看情态动词


↗有,就用原形


↗有,就加ed


↘没有,再看有无表示过去的时间状语


↗是第三人称单数就加s或es


↘没有,再看主语


↘不是第三人称单数就用原形


(2)be动词


a、Am--was Is --was Are--were 口诀:我用am, 你用are, is用在他她它,所有复数全用are。


b、肯定和否定句 I am (not) from London. He is(not) a teacher. She is(not) in the dining room. My hair is(not) long. Her eyes are(not) small.


c、一般疑问句 Am I a Chinese? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t. Are they American? Yes, they are. No, they aren’t. Is the cat fat? Yes, it is. No, it isn’t.


我们现在学过的be动词大致分两类:is、am、are为一类,一般用于一般现在时、现在进行时和一般将来时中,was和were为另一类,一般用于一般过去时。


判断步骤:


↗第一、三人称单数,就用was


↗有,再看人称


↘第二人称单数和所有复数,就用were


看有无表示过去的时间状语


↗第一人称单数,就用am


↘没有,再看人称→第三人称单数,就有is


↘第二人称单数和所有复数,就用are


用am, is, are 填空


1. I ______ a boy. ______ you a boy? No, I _____ not.


2. The girl______ Jack's sister.


3. The dog _______ tall and fat.


4. The man with big eyes _______ a teacher.


5. ______ your brother in the classroom?


6. Where _____ your mother? She ______ at home.


7. How _______ your father?


8. Mike and Liu Tao ______ at school.


9. Whose dress ______ this?


10. Whose socks ______ they?


(3)情态动词


情态动词也是一类特殊的动词,平时我们不把它说成是动词。情态动词可以和行为动词同时出现在同一个句子中。


我们现在学过的情态动词有:can、must、should、would、may。接触最多的是can。


情态动词后动词总是用原形。(不受其他任何条件影响)


2、名词


表示某一事物,有具体的和抽象的之分。判断的关键词往往是be动词,be动词如果是am、is或was,名词就用原形;be动词如果是are或were,名词就加s或es。


这里强调两点:不可数名词都默认为单数,所以总是用is或者was;最好不要根据some、any、a lot of等词去作判断,以免受误导。


如何加后缀:


a.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds


b.以s. x. sh. ch结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches


c.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:family-families, strawberry-strawberries 


d.以“f或fe”结尾,变f或fe为v, 再加-es,如:knife-knives


e.不规则名词复数: man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen, policewoman-policewomen, mouse-mice child-children foot-feet ,.tooth-teeth fish-fish, people-people, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese


判断步骤:


↗如是am、is或was→原形


读句子→读该单词→认识该单词→理解意思→看be动词


↘如是are或were→加s或es


3、形容词(包括副词)


形容词表示某一事物或的特征,副词表示某一动作的特征。 


形容词和副词只有两种形式:原形和+er。


未作比较的情况下就用原形,比较时就+er。


两个重要特征:as……as中间一定用原形,有than的时候一定+er。


4、人称代词和物主代词 










































主格


you


I


he


she


it


we


they


宾格


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


形容词性物主代词


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


名词性物主代词


 


 


 


 


 


 


 



 


第一人称 I me we us my mine our ours


第二人称 you you you you your yours your yours


第三人称 he him they them his his their theirs she her her her sit it its its


人称代词:有主格和宾格之分。一般动词前用主格,动词后用宾格。


物主代词:有两类:形容词性物主代词(短的)和名词性物主代词(长的)


一般看后面有没有名词,如有,就用形容词性物主代词(短的);如无,就用名词性物主代词(长的)。


用所给词的适当形式填空


1. That is not _________ kite. That kite is very small, but _________ is very big. ( I )


2. The dress is _________. Give it to _________. ( she )


3. Is this _________ watch? (you) No, it’s not _________ . ( I )


4. _________ is my brother. _________ name is Jack. Look! Those stamps are _________. ( he )


5、数量词


我们学过两类:基数词和序数词。基数用于表示数量多少,而基数词用于表示次序,常在日期中出现。


6、冠词


有a、an、the。a和an有具体的意思,一(个…),the没有具体意思,有时翻译为这、那。确定用a、an还是the时可根据汉语意思。a和an的区别:an用于元音音素(一般就是元音字母aeiou)前,a用于辅音音素前。


















一、名词复数规则


1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds


2.以s. x. sh. ch结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches


3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:family-families, strawberry-strawberries


4.以“f或fe”结尾,变f或fe为v, 再加-es,如:knife-knives 5.不规则名词复数: man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen, policewoman-policewomen, mouse-mice child-children foot-feet,.tooth-teeth fish-fish, people-people, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese


写出下列各词的复数


I _________him _________this ___________her ______watch _______child _______photo ________diary ______


day________ foot________ book_______ dress ________tooth_______ sheep ______box_______ strawberry _____


peach______ sandwich ______dish_______bus_______man______ woman_______


二、一般现在时


1.一般现在时表示经常或习惯性的动作,也可表示现在的状态或主语具备的性格和能力。


2.一般现在时中,没有be动词和情态动词,主语为第三人称单数的肯定句,动词要按规则加上s,主语是非第三人称单数的肯定句,动词用原形。


3.在一般现在时中,句中有be动词或情态动词时,否定句在be动词和情态动词后加not,一般疑问句将be动词或情态动词放在句首。 4.在一般现在时中,句中没有be动词或情态动词时,主语为第三人称单数的否定句在动词前加does+not (doesn’t),一般疑问句在句首加does,句子中原有动词用原形;主语为非第三人称单数,否定句用do+not (don’t),一般疑问句在句首加do,句子中动词用原形。


动词+s的变化规则


1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks


2 .以s. x. sh. ch. o结尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes


3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:study-studies


一般现在时基本用法介绍


【No. 1】一般现在时的功能


1.表示事物或人物的特征、状态。如:The sky is blue.天空是蓝色的。


2.表示经常性或习惯性的动作。如:I get up at six every day.我天天六点起床。


3.表示客观现实。如:The earth goes around the sun.地球绕着太阳转。


一般现在时的构成


1. be动词:主语 be(am,is,are) 其它。如:


I am a boy.我是一个男孩。


2.行为动词:主语 行为动词( 其它)。如:


We study English.我们学习英语。


当主语为第三人称单数(he, she,it)时,要在动词后加"-s"或"-es"。如:Mary likes Chinese.玛丽喜欢汉语。


【No. 2】一般现在时的变化


1. be动词的变化。


否定句:主语 be not 其它。


如:He is not a worker.他不是工人。


一般疑问句:Be 主语 其它。


如:-Are you a student?


-Yes. I am. / No, I'm not.


非凡疑问句:疑问词 一般疑问句。如:Where is my bike?


2.行为动词的变化。


否定句:主语 don't( doesn't ) 动词原形( 其它)。如:


I don't like bread.


当主语为第三人称单数时,要用doesn't构成否定句。如:


He doesn't often play.


一般疑问句:Do( Does ) 主语 动词原形 其它。如:


- Do you often play football?


- Yes, I do. / No, I don't.


当主语为第三人称单数时,要用does构成一般疑问句。如:


- Does she go to work by bike?


- Yes, she does. / No, she doesn't.


2.行为动词的变化。


否定句:主语 don't( doesn't ) 动词原形( 其它)。如:


I don't like bread.


当主语为第三人称单数时,要用doesn't构成否定句。如:


He doesn't often play.


一般疑问句:Do( Does ) 主语 动词原形 其它。如:


- Do you often play football?


- Yes, I do. / No, I don't.


当主语为第三人称单数时,要用does构成一般疑问句。如:


- Does she go to work by bike?


- Yes, she does. / No, she doesn't.


动词 s的变化规则


1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks


2.以s. x. sh. ch. o结尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes


3.以“辅音字母 y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:study-studies


用括号内动词的适当形式填空。


1. He often ________(have) dinner at home.


2. Daniel and Tommy _______(be) in Class One.


3. We _______(not watch) TV on Monday.


4. Nick _______(not go) to the zoo on Sunday.


5. ______ they ________(like) the World Cup?


6. What _______they often _______(do) on Saturdays?


7. _______ your parents _______(read) newspapers every day?


8. The girl _______(teach) us English on Sundays.


9. She and I ________(take) a walk together every evening.


10. There ________(be) some water in the bottle.


11. Mike _______(like) cooking.


12. They _______(have) the same hobby.


13. My aunt _______(look) after her baby carefully.


14. You always _______(do) your homework well.


15. I _______(be) ill. I’m staying in bed.


16. She _______(go) to school from Monday to Friday.


17. Liu Tao _______(do) not like PE.


18. The child often _______(watch) TV in the evening.


19. Su Hai and Su Yang _______(have) eight lessons this term.


20. -What day _______(be) it today?


- It’s Saturday


三、现在进行时


1.现在进行时表示现在正在进行或发生的动作,也可表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作。


2.现在进行时的肯定句基本结构为be+动词ing.


3.现在进行时的否定句在be后加not。


4.现在进行时的一般疑问句把be动词调到句首。


    5.现在进行时的非凡疑问的基本结构为:


疑问词不达意 be 主语 动词ing?


但疑问词当主语时其结构为:


疑问词不达意 be 动词ing?


动词加ing的变化规则


1.一般情况下,直接加ing,如:cook-cooking


2.以不发音的e结尾,去e加ing,如:make-making, taste-tasting


3.如果末尾是一个元音字母和一个辅音字母,双写末尾的辅音字母,再加ing,如:run-running, stop-stopping


写出下列动词的现在分词:


play________ run__________ swim _________make__________


go_________ like________ write________ _ski___________


read________ have_________ sing ________ dance_________


put_________ see________ buy _________ love____________


live_______ take_________ come ________ get_________


stop_________ sit ________ begin________ shop___________


二、用所给的动词的正确形式填空:


1.The boy __________________ ( draw)a picture now.


2. Listen .Some girls _______________ ( sing)in the classroom .


3. My mother _________________ ( cook )some nice food now.


4. What _____ you ______ ( do ) now?


5. Look . They _______________( have) an English lesson .


6.They ____________(not ,water) the flowers now.


7.Look! the girls ________________(dance )in the classroom .


8.What is our granddaughter doing? She _________(listen ) to music.


9. It’s 5 o’clock now. We _____________(have)supper now


10.______Helen____________(wash )clothes? Yes ,she is .


四、将来时理论及练习


一、概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或预备做某事。句中一般有以下时间状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year…),soon, the day after tomorrow(后天)等。


二、基本结构:①be going to do;②will do.


三、否定句:在be动词(am, is, are)l后加not或情态动词will后加not成won’t。


例如:I’m going to have a picnic this afternoon.→ I’m not going to have a picnic this afternoon.


四、同义句:be going to = will


1.be going to 表示将要发生的事或打算、计划、决定要做的事情。


2.肯定句:be going to +动词原形,如:Jim is going to play football. 否定句:be not going to +动词原形,如:Jim is not going to play football. 一般疑问句:把be动词调到句首,如:Is Jim going to play football? 特殊疑问句:疑问词+be+主语+going to+动词原形?如:What is Jim going to do? 疑问词当主语时:疑问词+be+going to+动词原形?如:Who is going to play football?


I am going to go swimming tomorrow(明天). = I will go swimming tomorrow.


练习:


填空。


1. 我打算明天和朋友去野炊。


I_____ _______ _________ have a picnic with my friends.


I ________ have a picnic with my friends.


2.我们将要学习英语


We _____ _______ _________ learn English.


We ________ learn English.


五、一般过去时


1.一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态,常和表示过去的时间状语连用。一般过去时也表示过去经常或反复发生的动作感谢。


2.Be动词在一般过去时中的变化:


⑴am 和is在一般过去时中变为was。(was not=wasn’t)


⑵are在一般过去时中变为were。(were not=weren’t)


⑶带有was或were的句子,其否定、疑问的变化和is, am, are一样,即否定句在was或were后加not,一般疑问句把was或were调到句首。


3.句中没有be动词的一般过去时的句子


否定句:didn’t +动词原形,如:Jim didn’t go home yesterday. 一般疑问句:在句首加did,句子中的动词过去式变回原形。如:Did Jim go home yesterday? 特殊疑问句:


⑴疑问词+did+主语+动词原形?如: What did Jim do yesterday? ⑵疑问词当主语时:疑问词+动词过去式?如:Who went to home yesterday?


动词过去式变化规则:


1.一般在动词末尾加-ed,如:pull-pulled, cook-cooked


2.结尾是e加d,如:taste-tasted


3.末尾只有一个元音字母和一个辅音字母的重读闭音节,应双写末尾的辅音字母,再加-ed,如:stop-stopped


4.以“辅音字母+y”结尾的,变y为i,再加-ed,如:study-studied


5.不规则动词过去式: am,is-was, are-were, do-did, see-saw, say-said, give-gave, get-got, go-went, come-came, have-had, eat-ate, take-took, run-ran, sing-sang, put-put, make-made, read-read, write-wrote, draw-drew, drink-drank, fly-flew, ride-rode, speak-spoke, sweep-swept, swim-swam, sit-sat


过去时练习


写出下列动词的过去式


is\am_________ plant________ are ________


drink_________ play_______ go________ make ________


does_________ dance________ worry________ ask _____


taste_________ eat__________ put ______


kick_________ pass_______ do ________


Be动词的过去时练习(1)


Name ____________ No. ______ Date __________


用be动词的适当形式填空


1. I _______ at school just now.


2. He ________ at the camp last week.


3. We ________ students two years ago.


4. They ________ on the farm a moment ago.


5. Yang Ling ________ eleven years old last year.


6. There ________ an apple on the plate yesterday.


 


7. There ________ some milk in the fridge on Sunday.


8. The mobile phone _______ on the sofa yesterday evening.


用be动词的适当形式填空


1. I ______ an English teacher now.


2. She _______ happy yesterday.


3. They _______ glad to see each other last month.


行为动词的过去时练习(2)


Name ____________ No. ______ Date __________


用be动词的适当形式填空


1. I ______ (watch) a cartoon on Saturday.


2. Her father _______ (read) a newspaper last night.


3. We _________ to zoo yesterday, we _____ to the park. (go)


4. ______ you _______ (visit) your relatives last Spring Festival?


5. ______ he _______ (fly) a kite on Sunday? Yes, he ______.


6. Gao Shan _______ (pull) up carrots last National Day holiday.


7. I ____________ (sweep) the floor yesterday, but my mother ______.


8. What ______ she _______ (find) in the garden last morning? She __________ (find) a beautiful butterfly.


 


(二)小升初英语词类:


动词、名词和形容词不太容易区分,如不能一眼看出,可用如下方法:


先用“一(量词)”(如:一个、一张等)和这个词连起来说,如说得通,一般认为是名词;说不通再用“很”去判断,就是把“很”和为个词连起来说,说得通一般就是形容词;都说不通就是动词。(目前我们学过的,以后可能不同)(另外一些很明显的,如人称代词、数词、情态动词等一下就可以知道)


1、动词


这里所说的动词是指各种动词总称,其中包括行为动词(就是我们平时总说的那种动词)、be动词、情态动词。


(1)行为动词


就是我们平时上课时说的动词,表示某一动作或行为。如:sweep、live等。


行为动词我们已学过它们的四种形式:


原形、+s/es、+ed、+ing,具体判断方法如下:


↗有,就加ing


读句子→读该单词→认识该单词→理解意思→看有无be动词


(若是be going to 就用原形)


↘没有,再看情态动词


↗有,就用原形


↗有,就加ed


↘没有,再看有无表示过去的时间状语


↗是第三人称单数就加s或es


↘没有,再看主语


↘不是第三人称单数就用原形


(2)be动词


a、Am--was Is --was Are--were 口诀:我用am, 你用are, is用在他她它,所有复数全用are。


b、肯定和否定句 I am (not) from London. He is(not) a teacher. She is(not) in the dining room. My hair is(not) long. Her eyes are(not) small.


c、一般疑问句 Am I a Chinese? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t. Are they American? Yes, they are. No, they aren’t. Is the cat fat? Yes, it is. No, it isn’t.


我们现在学过的be动词大致分两类:is、am、are为一类,一般用于一般现在时、现在进行时和一般将来时中,was和were为另一类,一般用于一般过去时。


判断步骤:


↗第一、三人称单数,就用was


↗有,再看人称


↘第二人称单数和所有复数,就用were


看有无表示过去的时间状语


↗第一人称单数,就用am


↘没有,再看人称→第三人称单数,就有is


↘第二人称单数和所有复数,就用are


用am, is, are 填空


1. I ______ a boy. ______ you a boy? No, I _____ not.


2. The girl______ Jack's sister.


3. The dog _______ tall and fat.


4. The man with big eyes _______ a teacher.


5. ______ your brother in the classroom?


6. Where _____ your mother? She ______ at home.


7. How _______ your father?


8. Mike and Liu Tao ______ at school.


9. Whose dress ______ this?


10. Whose socks ______ they?


(3)情态动词


情态动词也是一类特殊的动词,平时我们不把它说成是动词。情态动词可以和行为动词同时出现在同一个句子中。


我们现在学过的情态动词有:can、must、should、would、may。接触最多的是can。


情态动词后动词总是用原形。(不受其他任何条件影响)


2、名词


表示某一事物,有具体的和抽象的之分。判断的关键词往往是be动词,be动词如果是am、is或was,名词就用原形;be动词如果是are或were,名词就加s或es。


这里强调两点:不可数名词都默认为单数,所以总是用is或者was;最好不要根据some、any、a lot of等词去作判断,以免受误导。


如何加后缀:


a.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds


b.以s. x. sh. ch结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches


c.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:family-families, strawberry-strawberries 


d.以“f或fe”结尾,变f或fe为v, 再加-es,如:knife-knives


e.不规则名词复数: man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen, policewoman-policewomen, mouse-mice child-children foot-feet ,.tooth-teeth fish-fish, people-people, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese


判断步骤:


↗如是am、is或was→原形


读句子→读该单词→认识该单词→理解意思→看be动词


↘如是are或were→加s或es


3、形容词(包括副词)


形容词表示某一事物或的特征,副词表示某一动作的特征。 


形容词和副词只有两种形式:原形和+er。


未作比较的情况下就用原形,比较时就+er。


两个重要特征:as……as中间一定用原形,有than的时候一定+er。


4、人称代词和物主代词 










































主格


you


I


he


she


it


we


they


宾格


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


形容词性物主代词


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


名词性物主代词


 


 


 


 


 


 


 



 


第一人称 I me we us my mine our ours


第二人称 you you you you your yours your yours


第三人称 he him they them his his their theirs she her her her sit it its its


人称代词:有主格和宾格之分。一般动词前用主格,动词后用宾格。


物主代词:有两类:形容词性物主代词(短的)和名词性物主代词(长的)


一般看后面有没有名词,如有,就用形容词性物主代词(短的);如无,就用名词性物主代词(长的)。


用所给词的适当形式填空


1. That is not _________ kite. That kite is very small, but _________ is very big. ( I )


2. The dress is _________. Give it to _________. ( she )


3. Is this _________ watch? (you) No, it’s not _________ . ( I )


4. _________ is my brother. _________ name is Jack. Look! Those stamps are _________. ( he )


5、数量词


我们学过两类:基数词和序数词。基数用于表示数量多少,而基数词用于表示次序,常在日期中出现。


6、冠词


有a、an、the。a和an有具体的意思,一(个…),the没有具体意思,有时翻译为这、那。确定用a、an还是the时可根据汉语意思。a和an的区别:an用于元音音素(一般就是元音字母aeiou)前,a用于辅音音素前。


















一、名词复数规则


1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds


2.以s. x. sh. ch结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches


3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:family-families, strawberry-strawberries


4.以“f或fe”结尾,变f或fe为v, 再加-es,如:knife-knives 5.不规则名词复数: man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen, policewoman-policewomen, mouse-mice child-children foot-feet,.tooth-teeth fish-fish, people-people, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese


写出下列各词的复数


I _________him _________this ___________her ______watch _______child _______photo ________diary ______


day________ foot________ book_______ dress ________tooth_______ sheep ______box_______ strawberry _____


peach______ sandwich ______dish_______bus_______man______ woman_______


二、一般现在时


1.一般现在时表示经常或习惯性的动作,也可表示现在的状态或主语具备的性格和能力。


2.一般现在时中,没有be动词和情态动词,主语为第三人称单数的肯定句,动词要按规则加上s,主语是非第三人称单数的肯定句,动词用原形。


3.在一般现在时中,句中有be动词或情态动词时,否定句在be动词和情态动词后加not,一般疑问句将be动词或情态动词放在句首。 4.在一般现在时中,句中没有be动词或情态动词时,主语为第三人称单数的否定句在动词前加does+not (doesn’t),一般疑问句在句首加does,句子中原有动词用原形;主语为非第三人称单数,否定句用do+not (don’t),一般疑问句在句首加do,句子中动词用原形。


动词+s的变化规则


1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks


2 .以s. x. sh. ch. o结尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes


3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:study-studies


一般现在时基本用法介绍


【No. 1】一般现在时的功能


1.表示事物或人物的特征、状态。如:The sky is blue.天空是蓝色的。


2.表示经常性或习惯性的动作。如:I get up at six every day.我天天六点起床。


3.表示客观现实。如:The earth goes around the sun.地球绕着太阳转。


一般现在时的构成


1. be动词:主语 be(am,is,are) 其它。如:


I am a boy.我是一个男孩。


2.行为动词:主语 行为动词( 其它)。如:


We study English.我们学习英语。


当主语为第三人称单数(he, she,it)时,要在动词后加"-s"或"-es"。如:Mary likes Chinese.玛丽喜欢汉语。


【No. 2】一般现在时的变化


1. be动词的变化。


否定句:主语 be not 其它。


如:He is not a worker.他不是工人。


一般疑问句:Be 主语 其它。


如:-Are you a student?


-Yes. I am. / No, I'm not.


非凡疑问句:疑问词 一般疑问句。如:Where is my bike?


2.行为动词的变化。


否定句:主语 don't( doesn't ) 动词原形( 其它)。如:


I don't like bread.


当主语为第三人称单数时,要用doesn't构成否定句。如:


He doesn't often play.


一般疑问句:Do( Does ) 主语 动词原形 其它。如:


- Do you often play football?


- Yes, I do. / No, I don't.


当主语为第三人称单数时,要用does构成一般疑问句。如:


- Does she go to work by bike?


- Yes, she does. / No, she doesn't.


2.行为动词的变化。


否定句:主语 don't( doesn't ) 动词原形( 其它)。如:


I don't like bread.


当主语为第三人称单数时,要用doesn't构成否定句。如:


He doesn't often play.


一般疑问句:Do( Does ) 主语 动词原形 其它。如:


- Do you often play football?


- Yes, I do. / No, I don't.


当主语为第三人称单数时,要用does构成一般疑问句。如:


- Does she go to work by bike?


- Yes, she does. / No, she doesn't.


动词 s的变化规则


1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks


2.以s. x. sh. ch. o结尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes


3.以“辅音字母 y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:study-studies


用括号内动词的适当形式填空。


1. He often ________(have) dinner at home.


2. Daniel and Tommy _______(be) in Class One.


3. We _______(not watch) TV on Monday.


4. Nick _______(not go) to the zoo on Sunday.


5. ______ they ________(like) the World Cup?


6. What _______they often _______(do) on Saturdays?


7. _______ your parents _______(read) newspapers every day?


8. The girl _______(teach) us English on Sundays.


9. She and I ________(take) a walk together every evening.


10. There ________(be) some water in the bottle.


11. Mike _______(like) cooking.


12. They _______(have) the same hobby.


13. My aunt _______(look) after her baby carefully.


14. You always _______(do) your homework well.


15. I _______(be) ill. I’m staying in bed.


16. She _______(go) to school from Monday to Friday.


17. Liu Tao _______(do) not like PE.


18. The child often _______(watch) TV in the evening.


19. Su Hai and Su Yang _______(have) eight lessons this term.


20. -What day _______(be) it today?


- It’s Saturday


三、现在进行时


1.现在进行时表示现在正在进行或发生的动作,也可表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作。


2.现在进行时的肯定句基本结构为be+动词ing.


3.现在进行时的否定句在be后加not。


4.现在进行时的一般疑问句把be动词调到句首。


    5.现在进行时的非凡疑问的基本结构为:


疑问词不达意 be 主语 动词ing?


但疑问词当主语时其结构为:


疑问词不达意 be 动词ing?


动词加ing的变化规则


1.一般情况下,直接加ing,如:cook-cooking


2.以不发音的e结尾,去e加ing,如:make-making, taste-tasting


3.如果末尾是一个元音字母和一个辅音字母,双写末尾的辅音字母,再加ing,如:run-running, stop-stopping


写出下列动词的现在分词:


play________ run__________ swim _________make__________


go_________ like________ write________ _ski___________


read________ have_________ sing ________ dance_________


put_________ see________ buy _________ love____________


live_______ take_________ come ________ get_________


stop_________ sit ________ begin________ shop___________


二、用所给的动词的正确形式填空:


1.The boy __________________ ( draw)a picture now.


2. Listen .Some girls _______________ ( sing)in the classroom .


3. My mother _________________ ( cook )some nice food now.


4. What _____ you ______ ( do ) now?


5. Look . They _______________( have) an English lesson .


6.They ____________(not ,water) the flowers now.


7.Look! the girls ________________(dance )in the classroom .


8.What is our granddaughter doing? She _________(listen ) to music.


9. It’s 5 o’clock now. We _____________(have)supper now


10.______Helen____________(wash )clothes? Yes ,she is .


四、将来时理论及练习


一、概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或预备做某事。句中一般有以下时间状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year…),soon, the day after tomorrow(后天)等。


二、基本结构:①be going to do;②will do.


三、否定句:在be动词(am, is, are)l后加not或情态动词will后加not成won’t。


例如:I’m going to have a picnic this afternoon.→ I’m not going to have a picnic this afternoon.


四、同义句:be going to = will


1.be going to 表示将要发生的事或打算、计划、决定要做的事情。


2.肯定句:be going to +动词原形,如:Jim is going to play football. 否定句:be not going to +动词原形,如:Jim is not going to play football. 一般疑问句:把be动词调到句首,如:Is Jim going to play football? 特殊疑问句:疑问词+be+主语+going to+动词原形?如:What is Jim going to do? 疑问词当主语时:疑问词+be+going to+动词原形?如:Who is going to play football?


I am going to go swimming tomorrow(明天). = I will go swimming tomorrow.


练习:


填空。


1. 我打算明天和朋友去野炊。


I_____ _______ _________ have a picnic with my friends.


I ________ have a picnic with my friends.


2.我们将要学习英语


We _____ _______ _________ learn English.


We ________ learn English.


五、一般过去时


1.一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态,常和表示过去的时间状语连用。一般过去时也表示过去经常或反复发生的动作感谢。


2.Be动词在一般过去时中的变化:


⑴am 和is在一般过去时中变为was。(was not=wasn’t)


⑵are在一般过去时中变为were。(were not=weren’t)


⑶带有was或were的句子,其否定、疑问的变化和is, am, are一样,即否定句在was或were后加not,一般疑问句把was或were调到句首。


3.句中没有be动词的一般过去时的句子


否定句:didn’t +动词原形,如:Jim didn’t go home yesterday. 一般疑问句:在句首加did,句子中的动词过去式变回原形。如:Did Jim go home yesterday? 特殊疑问句:


⑴疑问词+did+主语+动词原形?如: What did Jim do yesterday? ⑵疑问词当主语时:疑问词+动词过去式?如:Who went to home yesterday?


动词过去式变化规则:


1.一般在动词末尾加-ed,如:pull-pulled, cook-cooked


2.结尾是e加d,如:taste-tasted


3.末尾只有一个元音字母和一个辅音字母的重读闭音节,应双写末尾的辅音字母,再加-ed,如:stop-stopped


4.以“辅音字母+y”结尾的,变y为i,再加-ed,如:study-studied


5.不规则动词过去式: am,is-was, are-were, do-did, see-saw, say-said, give-gave, get-got, go-went, come-came, have-had, eat-ate, take-took, run-ran, sing-sang, put-put, make-made, read-read, write-wrote, draw-drew, drink-drank, fly-flew, ride-rode, speak-spoke, sweep-swept, swim-swam, sit-sat


过去时练习


写出下列动词的过去式


is\am_________ plant________ are ________


drink_________ play_______ go________ make ________


does_________ dance________ worry________ ask _____


taste_________ eat__________ put ______


kick_________ pass_______ do ________


Be动词的过去时练习(1)


Name ____________ No. ______ Date __________


用be动词的适当形式填空


1. I _______ at school just now.


2. He ________ at the camp last week.


3. We ________ students two years ago.


4. They ________ on the farm a moment ago.


5. Yang Ling ________ eleven years old last year.


6. There ________ an apple on the plate yesterday.


 


7. There ________ some milk in the fridge on Sunday.


8. The mobile phone _______ on the sofa yesterday evening.


用be动词的适当形式填空


1. I ______ an English teacher now.


2. She _______ happy yesterday.


3. They _______ glad to see each other last month.


行为动词的过去时练习(2)


Name ____________ No. ______ Date __________


用be动词的适当形式填空


1. I ______ (watch) a cartoon on Saturday.


2. Her father _______ (read) a newspaper last night.


3. We _________ to zoo yesterday, we _____ to the park. (go)


4. ______ you _______ (visit) your relatives last Spring Festival?


5. ______ he _______ (fly) a kite on Sunday? Yes, he ______.


6. Gao Shan _______ (pull) up carrots last National Day holiday.


7. I ____________ (sweep) the floor yesterday, but my mother ______.


8. What ______ she _______ (find) in the garden last morning? She __________ (find) a beautiful butterfly.


 


(二)小升初英语词类:


动词、名词和形容词不太容易区分,如不能一眼看出,可用如下方法:


先用“一(量词)”(如:一个、一张等)和这个词连起来说,如说得通,一般认为是名词;说不通再用“很”去判断,就是把“很”和为个词连起来说,说得通一般就是形容词;都说不通就是动词。(目前我们学过的,以后可能不同)(另外一些很明显的,如人称代词、数词、情态动词等一下就可以知道)


1、动词


这里所说的动词是指各种动词总称,其中包括行为动词(就是我们平时总说的那种动词)、be动词、情态动词。


(1)行为动词


就是我们平时上课时说的动词,表示某一动作或行为。如:sweep、live等。


行为动词我们已学过它们的四种形式:


原形、+s/es、+ed、+ing,具体判断方法如下:


↗有,就加ing


读句子→读该单词→认识该单词→理解意思→看有无be动词


(若是be going to 就用原形)


↘没有,再看情态动词


↗有,就用原形


↗有,就加ed


↘没有,再看有无表示过去的时间状语


↗是第三人称单数就加s或es


↘没有,再看主语


↘不是第三人称单数就用原形


(2)be动词


a、Am--was Is --was Are--were 口诀:我用am, 你用are, is用在他她它,所有复数全用are。


b、肯定和否定句 I am (not) from London. He is(not) a teacher. She is(not) in the dining room. My hair is(not) long. Her eyes are(not) small.


c、一般疑问句 Am I a Chinese? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t. Are they American? Yes, they are. No, they aren’t. Is the cat fat? Yes, it is. No, it isn’t.


我们现在学过的be动词大致分两类:is、am、are为一类,一般用于一般现在时、现在进行时和一般将来时中,was和were为另一类,一般用于一般过去时。


判断步骤:


↗第一、三人称单数,就用was


↗有,再看人称


↘第二人称单数和所有复数,就用were


看有无表示过去的时间状语


↗第一人称单数,就用am


↘没有,再看人称→第三人称单数,就有is


↘第二人称单数和所有复数,就用are


用am, is, are 填空


1. I ______ a boy. ______ you a boy? No, I _____ not.


2. The girl______ Jack's sister.


3. The dog _______ tall and fat.


4. The man with big eyes _______ a teacher.


5. ______ your brother in the classroom?


6. Where _____ your mother? She ______ at home.


7. How _______ your father?


8. Mike and Liu Tao ______ at school.


9. Whose dress ______ this?


10. Whose socks ______ they?


(3)情态动词


情态动词也是一类特殊的动词,平时我们不把它说成是动词。情态动词可以和行为动词同时出现在同一个句子中。


我们现在学过的情态动词有:can、must、should、would、may。接触最多的是can。


情态动词后动词总是用原形。(不受其他任何条件影响)


2、名词


表示某一事物,有具体的和抽象的之分。判断的关键词往往是be动词,be动词如果是am、is或was,名词就用原形;be动词如果是are或were,名词就加s或es。


这里强调两点:不可数名词都默认为单数,所以总是用is或者was;最好不要根据some、any、a lot of等词去作判断,以免受误导。


如何加后缀:


a.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds


b.以s. x. sh. ch结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches


c.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:family-families, strawberry-strawberries 


d.以“f或fe”结尾,变f或fe为v, 再加-es,如:knife-knives


e.不规则名词复数: man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen, policewoman-policewomen, mouse-mice child-children foot-feet ,.tooth-teeth fish-fish, people-people, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese


判断步骤:


↗如是am、is或was→原形


读句子→读该单词→认识该单词→理解意思→看be动词


↘如是are或were→加s或es


3、形容词(包括副词)


形容词表示某一事物或的特征,副词表示某一动作的特征。 


形容词和副词只有两种形式:原形和+er。


未作比较的情况下就用原形,比较时就+er。


两个重要特征:as……as中间一定用原形,有than的时候一定+er。


4、人称代词和物主代词 










































主格


you


I


he


she


it


we


they


宾格


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


形容词性物主代词


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


名词性物主代词


 


 


 


 


 


 


 



 


第一人称 I me we us my mine our ours


第二人称 you you you you your yours your yours


第三人称 he him they them his his their theirs she her her her sit it its its


人称代词:有主格和宾格之分。一般动词前用主格,动词后用宾格。


物主代词:有两类:形容词性物主代词(短的)和名词性物主代词(长的)


一般看后面有没有名词,如有,就用形容词性物主代词(短的);如无,就用名词性物主代词(长的)。


用所给词的适当形式填空


1. That is not _________ kite. That kite is very small, but _________ is very big. ( I )


2. The dress is _________. Give it to _________. ( she )


3. Is this _________ watch? (you) No, it’s not _________ . ( I )


4. _________ is my brother. _________ name is Jack. Look! Those stamps are _________. ( he )


5、数量词


我们学过两类:基数词和序数词。基数用于表示数量多少,而基数词用于表示次序,常在日期中出现。


6、冠词


有a、an、the。a和an有具体的意思,一(个…),the没有具体意思,有时翻译为这、那。确定用a、an还是the时可根据汉语意思。a和an的区别:an用于元音音素(一般就是元音字母aeiou)前,a用于辅音音素前。








 
2015年09月17日 - zhoujinping67 - 石竹斋
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